Countermeasures for improving protection and management of world cultural heritage in Longmen Grottoes

1. Rationalize management system and innovate management mechanism

At present, Longmen Grottoes adopts a territorial management system, in which the right of management and management are integrated. In addition, the government only gives policies and does not give funds, so the authority is prone to produce a wrong development idea of “relying on the mountains and the rivers, relying on the rivers and the rivers”, emphasizing development but neglecting protection. Therefore, it is necessary to straighten out the management system between the local government and the authority, and between the central government and the local government, To make local governments and administrations consciously restrain their own behaviors and take responsible behaviors towards the state and the heritage, including the following three aspects:

1.1 strictly control and approve the development plan of scenic spots

The rights and obligations between the government and the authority must be clear. The government does not interfere in the daily business activities of the authority, but all the resources development activities of the authority must be reviewed and approved by the government. The government should organize a demonstration group composed of its own department, superior competent departments, tourism planning experts, grottoes protection experts and representatives of the authority, Focus on examining whether the development plan submitted by the authority conforms to the development plan of the area, whether it will cause damage to heritage resources, whether it will cause damage to the environment, etc. only the approved development plan can be put into practice. If the authority develops without approval, it shall be punished according to the seriousness of the circumstances and the degree of damage to resources, We should further carry out publicity and education to improve the protection of heritage by tourists and encourage the media and the public to carry out supervision

1.2 ensure the capital investment of grottoes protection and management

In 1965, the U.S. Congress passed the franchise law, which requires the implementation of the franchise system in the national park system. The park’s catering, accommodation and other tourism service facilities are open to the public, economically unrelated to the National Park. The National Park Management Agency is a non-profit organization of the federal government, focusing on the protection and management of natural and cultural heritage, The implementation of the franchise system has formed the separation of the roles of managers and operators, and avoided the disadvantages of emphasizing economic benefits and neglecting resource protection [5], On the one hand, we need to find ways to ensure the necessary capital investment of the grotto heritage. On the other hand, we need to ensure that all the tourism facilities and ticket revenue in the scenic area are the capital source for the administration to implement the management of the scenic area and the maintenance of the grottoes. It should be pointed out that although the state and the government can not protect and manage the cultural heritage as the United States does, the government should bear all the expenses, The local government and relevant departments should never regard the ticket revenue of Longmen Grottoes as the main revenue source of the first level finance, or even as the money tree or revenue source of the government

1.3 improve and innovate management mechanism

From the perspective of national level management, we can learn from the practice of the United States. The National Park Management System of the United States is exclusively managed by the National Park Administration of the United States Department of the interior, while the National Park Administration is directly under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of the interior, and is not subject to the interference of state administrative power. This is a national owned, national management, single management, and purposeful vertical management system [6], Drawing on international experience and taking into account the specific situation of China, on the basis of the classification of heritage, according to the type and level of heritage, a national level management organization can be set up, for example, a national heritage administration, directly under the State Council, is responsible for the heritage management that has been listed in the world heritage list. The national administration can establish an effective performance evaluation system, Carry out a comprehensive and systematic assessment and scientific assessment of the management and operation of heritage protection, so as to achieve the supervision and control of the government of the heritage site

2. Change ideas

Government departments and managers should change their ideas and reposition themselves. Managers’ positioning of themselves is an important factor that ultimately affects the management effect. The managers of national parks in the United States place themselves in the role of stewards or waiters rather than owners. They believe that the heirs of national heritage are all American citizens of the present and future generations, The administrators only have the duty to look after and maintain the heritage, but not have the right to control it at will [7], not to be an important source of their own financial revenue. This idea should be advocated in the heritage protection of our country. To make the management departments and personnel truly realize that Longmen Grottoes are the common wealth of all Chinese people and the people of the world, No collective or individual has the right to steal or dominate without permission. All management behaviors should be examined from the perspective of being responsible to the people of the whole country and the people of the world

3.Accelerate the training of talent team

In view of the lack of professional talents at present, on the one hand, it is necessary to improve the knowledge level of the existing personnel, mainly by sending them out for training. In particular, it is necessary to pay attention to the training of young experts in the unit, so as to give them opportunities and responsibilities, so that they have more opportunities to shoulder the responsibilities and grow up as soon as possible; On the other hand, famous experts in the field of heritage protection at home and abroad can be invited to Longmen Grottoes on a regular basis for special research and exchange, or directly introduce high-level professional and technological talents at home and abroad. At the same time, in major cultural relics protection projects, we should make full use of the talents and facilities of the existing specialties, laboratories and research institutes in Colleges and universities, We can cooperate with colleges and universities to build the first-class cultural relics protection major, Research Institute and experimental center in China. In chemical reinforcement and development of new materials, we can directly transform the existing achievements into cultural relics protection.

4.Design a scientific and reasonable travel path

At present, the phenomenon of tourists depicting and touching cultural relics still occurs frequently. From the aspect of heritage protection, these behaviors undoubtedly cause serious damage to the grottoes. In this case, scientific and reasonable design of tourism footpath is a good method. Managers can guide tourists to enter only places that will not cause damage to heritage resources through the planning of tourism footpath, Control tourists’ access to the environment and effectively restrict tourists’ behavior

5. Necessary to control the number of people in the scenic spot and make scientific and reasonable tourism management plan

With the rise of historical heritage tourism, Longmen Grottoes, on the one hand, bring considerable economic and social benefits to the local area, on the other hand, the threat of the destruction of resources and environment is also increasing. How to find a balance between heritage protection and tourism development, how to give full play to its tourism function and value under the condition of protecting its resources from destruction, It is an important problem in the development of Longmen Grottoes and other similar scenic spots. At present, the more feasible way is to properly control the number of people entering the scenic spots and reduce the pressure of tourists. This method has been implemented by Jiuzhaigou, Huangshan and other scenic spots, and has achieved relatively significant protection effect

6. Strengthen the daily monitoring of the internal and surrounding environment of the scenic spot

In the protection work of Longmen Grottoes, on the one hand, it is necessary to build various isolation facilities, so that visitors can get a lot of experience and avoid direct contact, pollution or material abrasion of precious resources. On the other hand, it is necessary to establish a set of strict monitoring system for the damage of Grottoes environment and natural erosion, including the content of management responsibility, With the increasing number of tourists, noise, carbon dioxide and the role of acid substances, sunlight and weathering in the natural environment, The daily maintenance of the Grottoes is becoming more and more urgent. It is not enough to only rely on some funds from the higher authorities for maintenance. It is necessary to establish and improve the system of daily monitoring and maintenance of the grottoes, find out and actively prevent all possible situations in time, and take precautions in advance. Only in this way can the protection of the grottoes be truly implemented, and be responsible for the nation, Responsible for history.

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