Problems in the protection and management of world cultural heritage in Longmen Grottoes

1.Environmental features are damaged due to improper development

In March 2002, Longmen Grottoes Scenic Area Management Bureau raised nearly 100 million yuan to build two highway bridges in the north and south of Longmen Grottoes, widen the river channel in the south of the scenic area, and repair the ancient building facilities of Xiangshan temple. In April 2003, the scenic area implemented closed management, forming a tourism landscape integrating grottoes, temples, and cemeteries. The two additional bridges damaged the “two opposite mountains” of Longmen, Looking like a que “is a unique natural landscape. For closed management, a separation wall was built in Dongshan mountain to prevent tourists from climbing. Its building materials are gray white, such as a strange long dragon climbing on the beautiful and green Xiangshan Mountain, which greatly reduces the elegant atmosphere of Xiangshan [1]. The misplaced development has a very adverse impact on the original environmental features of Longmen Grottoes

2. Attach importance to development and despise protection

In order to develop the tourism resources and increase the financial revenue of Longmen Grottoes, a series of tourism development measures have been taken by the local authorities, which pose a great threat to the safety of the grottoes. In 1992, a rubber dam was designed and built at 100m downstream of the grottoes center to store water and restore the beautiful scenery of the mountain and clear water in the grottoes area, With an investment of 21 million yuan, the Longmen second level water surface project, located about 600 m downstream of the first level rubber dam, will be built. After the completion of the project, 46667 M2 wide water surface will appear on the east side of Longmen scenic area, which will reproduce the scenery of “Longmen on water”. From a scientific point of view, the dry environment is essential for the protection of the grottoes. Longmen Grottoes are located on the East and West Mountains, There is an Yi River in the middle. Originally, the Yi River was a seasonal river with a cutoff period of half a year, making the surrounding environment of the grottoes very dry, which is very conducive to the protection of the grottoes. However, after the completion of the dam, the high temperature river water in summer fermented to form a local humid air pollution source, which has caused severe corrosion to the rock

3. Lack of protection for professionals

At present, the Longmen Grottoes protection center has 7 professionals engaged in Grottoes protection, which is less than 1 / 10 of the total staff of the Administration Bureau. Compared with the huge project of grottoes protection, it is very weak. In 1999, the State Administration of cultural relics allocated 300000 yuan for the protection and restoration of Longmen Grottoes, However, due to the lack of professional and technical personnel, it can not be implemented at all. This special fund still remains in the Cultural Relics Bureau of Henan Province and can not be used [3]. It can be seen that the lack of talents is another important factor restricting the protection work of Longmen Grottoes

4.The protection measures are not good, and tourists’ depiction and touching of cultural relics are serious

As the grottoes are in an open environment, the grottoes area can not be as closed as the Mogao Grottoes in Dunhuang, so the phenomenon of tourists’ carving and touching is common. Although the management department has strengthened the prevention work and taken many measures to reduce such phenomenon obviously, it has not been fundamentally eliminated. This is very unfavorable to the protection of cultural relics

5. Insufficient ways and development of heritage display

There are a lot of Allusions in Longmen Grottoes, but we can only get them through countless stone carvings now. It’s hard to arouse people’s interest in this way, which requires us to strengthen the way and strength of exhibition and make full use of modern technology to show them. Only in this way can we connect with the times. As a world cultural heritage, Longmen Grottoes is a cultural treasure house, At the same time, it also has the potential value of tourism resources development and the huge propaganda function as the open window of Luoyang City. How to combine the social and economic benefits and maximize its intrinsic value while preserving its natural features is the key work of the management department in the future

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