Heluo Civilization Exhibition of Luoyang Museum is located on the first floor of the exhibition hall, which is divided into five exhibition areas. In chronological order, the exhibition shows the development of Heluo civilization in prehistoric period, Xia Shang Zhou period, Han Wei period, Sui Tang period, Five Dynasties and Northern Song Dynasty. The collection of historical and cultural relics shows the vicissitudes and pride of Luoyang. Among them, the important exhibits are bronze wares of Shang and Zhou dynasties, combined lead wares of Western Zhou Dynasty and various kinds of “primitive celadon” in shape, the “treasure bowl of the Marquis of Qi” in the spring and Autumn period, the Jincun tripod and the “golden sword of soup” in the Warring States period, the painted pots of the Western Han Dynasty, the terracotta warriors of honor of the princes of the Northern Wei Dynasty and the colorful tri colored pottery of Tang Dynasty, etc.
the most important exhibit is a very complete fossil of the ancient rhomboid, which was preserved about 50000 years ago. It is 5.7 meters long and 2.8 meters high. The body of the ancient rhomboid is huge and the two incisors are thick. The Central Plains has always been closely related to elephants. In the late Neolithic age, Xia, Shang, Zhou, and even Han Dynasties, the image of elephants has always appeared in the Central Plains. The right half of Henan Province’s abbreviation “Yu” is an image character.
2.Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasties:
Four thousand years ago, Luoyang began to become the center of Chinese national politics and economy. The Erlitou site in Yanshi, Luoyang is recognized as the capital of the Xia Dynasty. Luoyang Museum has opened an independent exhibition hall to display the bronze, pottery and jade relics of the Xia Dynasty, which is unique among collection institutions at home and abroad. Among them, the micro Turquoise beast is only half a centimeter high, which is of great value to the study of the development of micro carving technology in China. The excavation of Erlitou site has made people have a comprehensive understanding of the development of Xia culture in western Henan. The model of Erlitou large Palace site on display enables people to feel the architectural scale of the capital of China’s Dynasty 4000 years ago. Cultural relics unearthed from the site of Yanshi Shangcheng show the cultural characteristics of the early Shang Dynasty. Zi Shen Fu Ji’s Bronze Ding is a representative of the bronze wares of the Shang Dynasty. It is exquisitely made, especially the bird shaped flat feet. It is a typical vessel of the late Shang Dynasty.
The cultural relics of the Western Zhou Dynasty include Shu Nu Fang Yi, Fang Zuzhen Zhen, weapons, Taotie Wen Fang Yi, Yongzhong, etc. During the Eastern Zhou Dynasty, there were many kinds of artifacts, such as gold and silver bronze tripod, Bronze Zun, Yu, terra cotta figures, plate, Cuan, bronze pot, stone chime and so on. Among them, qihoubao Yu, the largest and heaviest bronze ware unearthed in Luoyang, weighs 75 kg and has a diameter of 70 cm, which can be called the “king of the pots”. The inscriptions are important materials for studying the marriage relationship between the Zhou royal family and the princes. The sword of Yue Wang He, spear and Wu Wang Fu Chai on display is a clear evidence of the social unrest and frequent wars in the spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period..
3.Han and Wei Dynasties:
This period includes five dynasties: Western Han, Eastern Han, Cao Wei, Western Jin and Northern Wei. Through the display of cultural relics in this period, we can reappear the features of Luoyang, as the political, economic and cultural center, in the period of great development of feudal society and national integration. The cultural relics on display are: various acrobatic figurines, painted pottery pots, glazed pottery, Wang Mang coins, bronze mirrors, jade ornaments, etc. the most remarkable are “Xiping Shijing” and “Zhengshi Shijing”. Taixue was the largest educational institution in the Eastern Han Dynasty. There were more than 30000 Taixue students. Shijing was carved before Taixue in order to unify the classical characters of Confucianism and settle the disputes between ancient and modern versions. The existing fragments are treasures in the cultural history.
4.Sui and Tang Dynasties:
The display of Sui and Tang cultural relics excavated in Luoyang reflects the historical style of Luoyang, an international metropolis, in the heyday of China’s feudal society. The museum displays the sand table model of Luoyang City, the eastern capital, the excavated building construction, all kinds of painted figurines, tomb holding animals and famous and colorful tri colored pottery of the Tang Dynasty, as well as various bronze mirrors, gold and silver wares. The gold coins of Eastern Rome and silver coins of Persia on display, which were cast in Sui Dynasty and Northern Wei Dynasty respectively, were introduced to Luoyang through the business trip of the Silk Road, which also confirmed the view that the Silk Road originated in Luoyang.
There are many kinds of tri colored glazed pottery of Tang Dynasty on display, among which there are figures with different looks, animals with lifelike appearance, and simple and elegant living utensils, especially female figurines of Tang Dynasty. They are full-bodied, comfortable, luxuriant in clothes and diversified in hair ornaments, reflecting the strong and prosperous social outlook of the great Tang Dynasty. The sand table model of the Imperial Palace, the capital of the east of Sui and Tang Dynasties, reappeared the scale of the city. The capital city of Sui and Tang Dynasties with strict layout and natural design.
5.Five Dynasties and Northern Song Dynasty:
This part of the fine products are: Porcelain chess, pawns complete, the age is accurate, is the most complete porcelain Chinese chess with the most clear and well preserved archaeological discovery date and land. The stone statue of the great sage of Sizhou, the Sangha of the western regions in the early Tang Dynasty, is regarded as the incarnation of Avalokitesvara. The monument is well preserved, vivid and has exact commemoration, which is extremely rare.